India’s Second Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC

© Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, 2018

Executive Summary

  • India is committed at the highest level to meeting its national commitments made to the international community through UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement. In recognition of India’s national efforts towards climate change, Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi received the Champions of the Earth award in 2018, a top United Nations honour that recognises contribution in the field of environment protection.
  • Total annual GHG emissions have increased from 2,136.8 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2e (1,884.3 Mt with Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)) in 2010 to 2,607.5 Mt of CO2e in 2014 (2,306.3 Mt with LULUCF).
  • As a result of India’s proactive and sustained actions on climate change mitigation, the emission intensity of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has reduced by 21% over the period of 2005-2014.
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA) is the vision of Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, to bring the world together for harnessing the untapped potential of solar energy for universal energy access at affordable rates. With the joint efforts of India and France, ISA was launched in 2015 at Paris which became the first treaty-based inter-governmental organisation located in India.
  • Solar installed capacity in India has increased by about 9 times from 2.63 Gigawatt (GW) to 23.28 GW between March 2014 and August 2018.
  • The share of non-fossil sources in installed capacity of electricity generation increased from 30.5% in March 2015 to 35.5% in June 2018.
  • Supercritical thermal power units have risen from 40 (27.48 GW in 2015) to 66 (45.55 GW in 2018) with avoided emissions amounting to 7 MtCO2 in 2016-17.
  • A total of 170 old thermal generation units having a higher heat rate and a cumulative capacity of 10.64 GW, have been retired till March 2018.
  • Forest and tree cover increased from 24.01% of the total geographical area as reported in India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2013 to 24.39% as reported in ISFR 2017.
  • Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme for energy efficiency in industries and other energy-intensive sectors, covering 478 designated consumers (DCs), avoided emissions of 31 MtCO2 in cycle I (April 2012 to March 2015). In total, 846 DCs from 13 sectors are undergoing implementation of PAT cycle II, III and IV with a total targeted energy savings of 19 Mtoe.
  • Around 137 MtCO2 has been sequestered from 2010 to 2016 due to the National Horticulture Mission.
  • India is partnering 22 member countries and the European Union in the ‘Mission Innovation’ on clean energy, and is a co-lead in smart grid, off-grid and sustainable biofuels innovation challenges.
  • More than 312 million LED bulbs have been distributed till October 2018 under the ‘Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All’ (UJALA) programme. Replacement of incandescent and CFL bulbs by LED bulbs has resulted in energy saving of about 40 billion kWh and reduction of 33 MtCO2 per year (as in October 2018).

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